Key words: Computational Hydraulic, Energy Efficient Actuators, Energy Saving in Hydraulic, Hydraulic Control Reference  P. Krus, "On Load Sensing Fluid Power Systems," Division of Fluid Power Control Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1988.
Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Singh, "Derivation of design requirements for optimization of a high performance hydrostatic actuation system," International Journal of Fluid Power, vol.
The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down.
This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators.
Yuhui Shi and Russell Eberhart "A modified particle swarm optimizer" 0- 7803-4869-9198 0.0001998 IEEE.
Eberhart "Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization" Evolutionary computation, 2001 proceeding of the 2001 congres on vol.1 page no.